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Posted by / 04-Feb-2017 20:59

Cognitive behavioural therapy dating

However, alcohol use to induce sleep can be a cause of insomnia.

Long-term use of alcohol is associated with a decrease in NREM stage 3 and 4 sleep as well as suppression of REM sleep and REM sleep fragmentation.

By producing analgesia and sedation, opioids may be appropriate in carefully selected patients with pain-associated insomnia.

Two main models exists as to the mechanism of insomnia, (1) cognitive and (2) physiological.

Two-thirds of these patients wake up in the middle of the night, with more than half having trouble falling back to sleep after a middle-of-the-night awakening.

Early morning awakening is an awakening occurring earlier (more than 30 minutes) than desired with an inability to go back to sleep, and before total sleep time reaches 6.5 hours.

Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.

While benzodiazepines can put people to sleep (i.e., inhibit NREM stage 1 and 2 sleep), while asleep, the drugs disrupt sleep architecture: decreasing sleep time, delaying time to REM sleep, and decreasing deep slow-wave sleep (the most restorative part of sleep for both energy and mood).

Major depression leads to alterations in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, causing excessive release of cortisol which can lead to poor sleep quality.Altered levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA have been found, but the results have been inconsistent, and the implications of altered levels of such a ubiquitous neurotransmitter are unknown.Studies on whether insomnia is driven by circadian control over sleep or a wake dependent process have shown inconsistent results, but some literature suggests a dysregulation of the circadian rhythm based on core temperature.A qualified sleep specialist should be consulted for the diagnosis of any sleep disorder so the appropriate measures can be taken.Past medical history and a physical examination need to be done to eliminate other conditions that could be the cause of insomnia.

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Early morning awakening is often a characteristic of depression.